Papacy and Ecclesiast Tradition

1962-65 - 21st ECUMENICAL COUNCIL (Vatican II) convened by John XXIII and completed by Paul VI to restore the UNITY of CATHOLICISM in view of world dominion. To this effect, some 16 decrees were promulgated, namely:

(1) on the constitution of the Church,
(2) on the instruments of social communication,
(3) on the Church in the modern world,
(4) on divine REVELATION,
(5) on the sacred liturgy,
(6) on the Ecumenism,
(7) on Eastern Catholic Churches,
(8) on the Bishop’s pastoral office in the Church,
(9) on priestly formation,
(10) on the appropriate renewal of the religious life,
(11) on the apostolate of the laity,
(12) on the ministry and life of priests,
(13) on the Church’s missionary activity,
(14) on Christian education,
(15) on the relationship of the Church to non-Christian religions,
(16) on religious freedom.

1960 - The official beginning of a NEW POLICY between the THREE ROMES (Vatican, Constantinople and Moscow): peaceful coexistence and Ecumenical Movement.

1954 - Queenship of Mary (Pius XII).

1950 - Assumption of Mary (Pius XII).

1948 - Roman Catholics forbidden to take part in public discussions of religious questions without the permission of the Holy See. (Pius XII).

1929 - The LATERAN TREATY (between Mussolini and Pius XI):
a) Restoration of the Pope’s Temporal Power,
b) CREATION of the STATE of VATICAN CITY,
c) Recognition of the Pontiff’s Status, as a Sovereign Prince.
Undur Pius IX (1846-78):
a) St. Joseph proclaimed Patron of the R. C. Church,
b) Papal States incorporated into the new Kingdom of Italy,
c) Rome was made the Capital of that State.

1869-70 - I VATICAN ( the 20th Ecumenical Council) called by Pius IX to proclaim the SUPREMACY of the POPE over the R. C. Church and PAPAL INFALLIBILITY.

1854 - The dogma of the Immaculate Conception of Mary by Pope Pius IX. (Mary was declared immune from all taint of original sin.)

1545 - 1563 - The COUNCIL of TRENT (the 19th Ecumenical Council) convened by Pope Paul III.
Here are some of its decisions:
1 - the traditions of men were put on the same level as God’s Word,
2 - the interpretation of the Bible according to the Catholic Church,
3 - the merit of Christ is applied to adults and infants by baptism,
4 - no one can be sure that he has obtained the grace of God,
5 - justification can be increased by observing the Law of God and of the Church,
6 - the seven sacraments are necessary to salvation,
7 - the whole Christ is in both the bread and the wine (Transubstantiation),
8 - only bishops and priests have the power to forgive or to retain sins,
9 - the invocation of the saints, the veneration of the relics, sacred images and painting as well as indulgences were highly appraised.

1512 -1517 - The 18th ECUMENICAL COUNCIL held under two Popes, Julius II and Leo X, while the Emperor was Maximilian I. It met in St. John Lateran. The immortality of the soul was defended. It denied that philosophical truth is independent of revealed dogma.

1508 - 1580 - Composition and approbation of the second part of the rosary («Holy Mary...»).

1500 - Propagation of the devotion to St. Joseph.

1447 - 1503 - The Papacy became a source of moral corrpution: monasteries and convents lived in luxury, debauchery and immorality; Clerical concubinage was prevalent.

1439 - The Council of Florence enacted a decree declaring a General Council to be supreme in matters of faith.

1433 - 1440 - Two scholars discovered that the so called DONATION of CONSTANTINE, which was used for so long to justify the claims for Papal civil Sovereignty, was a mere FORGERY.

1431 - 1445 - The 17th ECUMENICAL COUNCIL held under Pope Eugene IV and Emperor Sigismond. At first, it met at Basle, then was transferred to Ferrara and, finally, to Florence. Another temporary reunion was effected between the Eastern Church and the Roman Catholic Church.

1414 - 1415 - The withdrawal of the cup from the laity in the communion.

1414 - 1418 - The 16th Ecumenical Council held at Constance, during the Great Papal Schism. According to R. C. authorities, this council became legitimated when Gregory XII formally convoked it. During that council, the First John XXIII was openly deposed, while Gregory XII resigned and Benedict XIII, refusing to abdicate, was also deposed.
Thus, the Great Papal Schism was ended by the election of a new Pope called Martin V.

1410 - 1415 - The First John XXIII was elected Pope to replace Alexander V who had died. John XXIII was more of a statesman and general than a spiritual leader. He was Pope only five years. He was deposed by the Council of Constance and made a cardinal.

1409 - The Council of Pisa, seeking to restore the unity within the Roman Church, deposed both Popes, namely Urban VI (in Rome) and Clement VII (Avignon), and elected a new Pope: Alexander V.

1380 - 1417 - The famous Papal SCHISM: two or three Popes reigning simultaneously and excommunicating each other.

1134 - Clement VI gave official endorsement to the principle of the treasury of the Church.

1311 - 1313 - The 15th ECUMENICAL COUNCIL, held under Clement V, at Vienne, France. It enacted decrees on the reformation of the Clergy.

1309 - 1377 - THE GREAT BABYLONIAN CAPTIVITY - The popes resided at Avignon for about 70 years.

1299 - Boniface VIII, in his Bull «Unam Sanctam», held that IT IS NECESSARY FOR SALVATION FOR EVERY human creature TO BE SUBJECT TO THE ROMAN PONTIFF.

1287 - Invention of the scapular by a monk called Simon Stock. All those who would wear it at the moment of death were promised eternal salvation.

1274 - The 14th ECUMENICAL COUNCIL held under Gregory X, at Lyons. It effected a temporary reunion of the Eastern Church with the Roman Church.

1266 - 1308 - Duns Scotus, a Franciscan scholar, stressed the authority of the Roman Catholic Church as well as the duty to believe what the Church teaches and to conform to what it commands.

1264 - The feast of Corpus Christi (under Urban IV).

1245 - The 13th ECUMENICAL COUNCIL, held under Innocent IV, at Lyons. It excommunicated and deposed Emperor Frederick II.

1243 - 1254 - INNOCENT IV. He set up the most absolute formula for the Papal Power in the Middle Age. In fact, he held that Peter and his successors had been invested with the fulness of the power. He asserted that the POPE received from Christ a GENERAL POWER OVER ALL THE EARTH.

1229 - The COUNCIL of TOULOUSE forbade to the laity the possession of copies of the BIBLE. It also systematized and elaborated the INQUISITION.

1227 - the use of bells at mass.

1220 - the adoration of the host.

1215 - The 12th Ecumenical Council held under Innocent III, in St. John Lateran. TRANSUBSTANTIATION and AURICULAR CONFESSION became DOGMAS of the Roman Catholic Church.

1200 - The bread was replaced by the host for communion.

1198 - 1216 - THE CLIMAX OF THE PAPACY under INNOCENT III.
1 - He took the title of VICAR OF JESUS CHRIST and SUCCESSOR of the Prince of the Apostles.
2 - He was the champion of the Papal THEOCRACY, that is, of the temporal and spiritual power being in the hands of the Pope. It is also called the THEORY of the TWO-SWORDS.
3 - He also claimed SUPREMACY in STATE and CHURCH for the Papacy. He held that God had ordained both the Papal and Imperial power, and that the Imprial power derives its dignity and splendour from the Papal one.
4 - He extended the Papal control over the Eastern Catholic Church, on account of the conquest of Constantinople by the Crusaders
5 - He excluded all lay interference in ecclesiastical affairs.

1179 - Pope Alexander III commanded that, in the future, canonization should be only with the authority of the Roman Church. None should be officially enrolled among the saints, without Papal consent.

1179 - The 11th ECUMENICAL COUNCIL held under Alexander III, in St. John Lateran. It condemned some popular religious movements, such as the Albigenses and the Waldenses. It also proclaimed a crusade against them.

1179 - First signs of the Inquisition: the ecclesiastical power combined with the civil arm to arrest and punish the members of some popular religious movements, such as Petrobrusians, Henricians, Waldenses, Cathari or Albigenses.

1177 - Conflict between Pope Alexander III and Emperor Frederick Barbarossa for supremacy. The Emperor was deposed and the Pope further increased his power over Church and State.

1139 - The 10th ECUMENICAL COUNCIL held under Pope Innocent III, in St. John Lateran. It upheld infant baptism, clerical celibacy, the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist and holy orders.

1125 - 1160 - PETER LOMBARD, a great scholar, was the first one to limit the sacraments to SEVEN. Their number was officially fixed at seven by the Council of Florence in 1439.

1123 - The 9th ECUMENICAL COUNCIL held under Pope Callistus II, at Rome, in St. John Lateran.
It abolished the right claimed by lay princes of investiture with ring and crosier to ecclesiastical offices. It condemned simony and clerical concubinage.

1096 - 1141
- Hugo of St. Victor, a scholar, held that a sacrament is the physical medium through which God’s grace operates. He stated that there were 30 sacraments.

1095 - The Council of Clermont did declare deposed all priests, deacons and sub-deacons who were married. Special fees for confirmation, extreme unction and funerals were also prohibited.

1095 - Plenary indulgence promised by Urban II to all those who took part in the First Crusade directed to free the Holy Places from the hands of infidels. Also was promised eternal life to those who lost their physical lives in the enterprise.

1090 - Recitation of the first part of the rosary («Hail, Mary...»). It was an imitation of the rites of Hindus and Mohamedans.

1076 - The beginning of the famous STRUGGLE between the POPE and the EMPEROR for SUPREMACY. (The attempted dethroning by Pope Gregory VII of Henry IV, the mightiest monarch of Western world.)

1076 - The FIRST DOGMA: the INFALLIBILITY of the Church.

1075 - The POPE’S CLAIMS. A document stating in twenty-five affirmations, the position of Pope Gregory VII concerning his conception of the Papal Office. Here are a few statements:
1 - the Roman Church was founded by God.
2 - The Roman Pontiff alone deserves the title «universal».
3 - He alone may use the imperial insignia.
4 - He can depose Emperors.
5 - He is the only man whose feet princes must kiss.
6 - A sentence passed by him cannot be reversed by any one except himself.
7 - He may be judged by no one.
8 - To him should be referred the important cases of every church.
9 - The Roman Church has never erred, not will it err to all eternity.
10 - He who is not at peace with the Roman Church shall not be considered a Catholic.
11 - The Roman Pontiff may absolve subjects from their allegiance to wicked men.

1074 - The ecclesiastical precept of clerical celibacy, under Gregory VII.
(Defense for the Clergy to get married.)

1073 - 1085 - Pope Gregory VII. He appointed some men to be his resident representatives in particular regions and countries, thus ensuring closer supervision from Rome and the enforcement of the Papal edicts. He also enjoyed to be called the Vicar of St. Peter.

1059 - New legislation under Nicholas II to determine that the Pope was to be appointed by the cardinals only.

1059 - The doctrine of TRANSUBSTANTIATION was resumed again for study. It became a dogma in 1215 only.

1048 - 1054 - The creation of Cardinals by Leo IX. He took them from any part of the Catholic Church, regardless of their country. He wanted to have the Pope elected by Clergy and the People.

1048 - 1054 - Difficulties between Leo IX and the Patriarch of Constantinople led to another stage in the separation of the Eastern and Western wings of the Catholic Church.

1000 - Pilgrimage to Holy Lands.

993 - Canonization of saints after their death (under John XV).

988 - Celebration of All Souls’ Day and devotion to the souls in purgatory under Odilo, an Abbot of Cluny.

978 - The official doctrine of purgatory.

965 - Baptism of the bells (under John XIV).

963 - Struggle for the Papacy between the Romans and some Western Emperors. It gave ground to many rivals for the Papacy.

962 - SECOND RESTORATION of the Western Empire (also called the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation). It was constituted by the Imperial Coronation of OTTO I by Pope John XII.

910 - The monastery of Cluny was the first one to be attached to the Papacy.

890 - The worship of St. Joseph.

869 - 870 - EIGHTH ECUMENICAL Council summoned by Emperor Basilius Maredo to be held in Constantinople. It affirmed the primacy of the Pope against the Patriarch of Constantinople, Photius.

850 - The use of holy water.

835 - The feast of ALL Saints’ Day (under Gregory IV).

831 - Peculiar view of Radbert, a monk, concerning Eucharist: the doctrine of TRANSUBSTANTIATION. He held that, while the bread and the wine remain unaltered to the senses, the substance of the body and blood of Christ is present in them by a miracle. Such a doctrine was opposed by some scholars, such as Maur, Gottschalk and Ratramnus.

800 - FIRST RESTORATION of the WESTERN EMPIRE (also called the HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE of the Frankish Nation) in which there were two heads: the one, CIVIL, the Emperor, and the other, spiritual, the POPE. It was inaugurated by the CORONATION of Charlemagne by Pope Leo III. It established the precedent that the imperial coronation must be by the Pope. It gave him more prestige.

800 - The use on insence made compulsory in the liturgy.

794 - The Council of Frankfort condemned the decision of the Seventh Ecumenical Council concerning the worship of images.

787 - SEVENTH ECUMENICAL COUNCIL, convoked by Empress Irene, wa held for the most part at Nicaea. It approved and regulated the worship of images and the invocation of the saints.

758 - The practice of private confession to a priest with the accompanying penance was introduced in the West, particularly in the Frankish realms, by the religious orders of the East.

754 - The TEMPORAL POWER of the PAPACY and the Estates of the Western Catholic Church inaugurated by Pepin the Short.

683 - Pope Leo II granted by an Edict of Emperor Constantine IV a complete independence in temporal as well as in ecclesiastical matters.

680 - SIXTH ECUMENICAL COUNCIL convened by Emperor Constantine IV in Constantinople.

650 - Feasts in honor of Mary.

642 - The title of SOVEREIGN PONTIFF officially taken by the Patriarch of Rome.

608 - The Pantheon - (a pagan temple built in 27 B.C., by Agrippa) - was donated by Emperor Phocas to Boniface IV who dedicated it to the worship of Mary and martyrs under the name of St. Mary of Martyrs.

607 - The title of universal patriarch granted by Emperor Phocas to Boniface III, bishop of Rome. That was the OFFICIAL BEGINNING of the PAPACY.

606 - The title of universal bishop or patriarch claimed by Boniface III, in Rome.

600 - Latin introduced in the liturgy (in the West).
Beginning of the intercession or invocation of the saints.

593 - The doctrine of Purgatory, already developed by Augustine (354-430), was resumed by Gregory I. It was conceived as being a state, a fire purging people of light sins before final judgment. He held that masses for the souls in purgatory are a help.

590 - 604 - Gregory I regarded the title of ecumenical bishop or patriarch as «an offense to the Laws, to Councils and to the precepts of Christ.»

590 - 604 - Gregory I was the builder of a POLITICO-RELIGIOUS EMPIRE centered in Rome. He laid the foundations for the power which the Church of Rome was to exercise in Western Europe during the coming centuries.

588 - Protest of Pelagius (Patriarch of Rome) against the title of universal bishop assumed by John the faster, Patriarch of Constantinople.

553 - FIFTH ECUMENICAL COUNCIL, called by Emperor Justinian I in Constantinople.

535 - Processions before Easter.

500 - A special dress (garment) was granted to the Clergy.

494 - The title of «VICAR of Christ» granted by a Roman Synod to the Patriarch of Rome, GELASIUS, regarded as the CHAMPION of the «primacy of St. Peter».

476 - The City of Rome ceased to be the seat of the Imperial Power to become the SEE of the Western Catholic Church.

475 - The Catholic Church and the Roman Empire had become so intimately associated that the impress placed by the State upon the Church was to prove INDELIBLE.

451 - FOURTH ECUMENICAL COUNCIL convened by Emperor Marian at Chalcedon. It granted the priority to the Patriarch of Rome, while the second place was given to the Patriarch of Constantinople (which had become the NEW ROME). It was a seed of schism within the bosom of Catholicism.

440 - 461 - Leo I, Patriarch of Rome, held the PRIMACY of St. Peter. He obtained from Emperor Valentinian III an edict commanding all the bishops of Italy and Gaul to obey the Patriarch of Rome, on the ground that he was the successor of Peter. He also extended to subdeacons the rule of clerical celibacy.

431 - THIRD ECUMENICAL Council under Emperor Theodosius II at Ephesus. The Nicene creed was ratified. Any addition to it or substitute for it was prohibited. It approved and supported the doctrine of Cyril of Alexandria stating that Mary was entitled to be called «the Mother of God». That was the OFFICIAL BEGINNING of the marial worship.

416 - The baptism of infants became compulsory.

390 - The practice of public penance, introduced by Hermas, Tertullian, Origen, for the sins committed after baptism, was abolished, in the East, by the Patriarch of Constantinople, but it continued, in the West, up till the 9th century.

381 - SECOND ECUMENICAL Council under Emperor Theodosius at Constantinople. It completed the Nicene creed or profession of faith.

380 - The worship of images (icons), of relics and of the cross.

380 - Edict of Emperor Theodosus I: force was used to compel people to follow the Catholic religion.

375 - 400 - The celebration of the Eucharist was called MASS. Leo I (440-461), Gelasius (492-496) and Gregory I (590-604) greatly contributed in giving to the celebration of the Eucharist the Roman shape it kept for centuries.

354 - 430 - St. Augustine stated that baptism and the Lord’s Supper were necessary to salvation. He also held that, outside of the Catholic Church, there was no salvation.

353 - Synod of Arles: a bishop was derelict of his duty, if he did not stamp out the worship of idols in his diocese.

350 - 375 - The worship of angels and of the saints encouraged by Basil of Caesarea and Gregory of Nazianzus.

330 - The SEAT of the Emperor Constantine transferred from Rome to Constantinople (the New Rome).

325 - The FIRST ECUMENICAL COUNCIL of the CATHOLIC CHURCH summoned and presided over by Emperor Constantine, at Nicaea. It determined a creed or profession of faith for the whole Church. Members of the Catholic Clergy were granted the freedom from all contributions to the State by the Emperor, because he perfectly knew that POLITICAL UNITY was to be achieved through RELIGIOUS UNITY.

320 - 370 - Candles in the churches.

315 - The Sign of the cross.

313 - 337 - A. D., REIGN of the EMPEROR CONSTANTINE AS CIVIL AND RELIGIOUS LEADER of the Roman Empire.
He bore the title of PONTIFEX MAXIMUS, which means SOVEREIGN PONTIFF.
He established the marriage of the Catholic Church with the State.
He also set up in the Catholic Church a HIERARCHY based on that of the Imperial Court, with PATRIARCHS residing at the main cities of the Empire, namely: Rome, Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch and Jerusalem.

313 - EDICT of MILAN by Emperor Constantine granting FREEDOM OF RELIGION.

305 - A Synod, held in Elvira, Spain, demanded clerical celibacy.

260 - 268 - The right of association and propriety granted by Emperor Gallienus to the Catholic Church.

252 - The baptism of infants right after their birth recommanded by a Synod of Carthage.

250 - The rise of Monasticism. It was primarily a lay movement.